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Part III – Invasion of the Aliens hits Bighorn Sheep

 “Watch this,” Ron Thompson was driving back to the researchers bungalow when he spotted a half dozen oryx hanging by the side of the road near a fence line. We’d stopped to watch them as they nonchalantly eyed us back . Huge, bulky, like a hefty elk with 40” scimitar-shaped horns, their beautiful and unusual black and white facial pattern reminded me of a Rorschach test. A black triangle framed their noses with mirrored white splotches on either side. Sharp black edged body markings and tan bodies, oryx have a regal exotic appearance. The animals stood and stared at the truck, just a few feet away.

“They love to race trucks. As soon as we start, they’ll run, then cut across us.” 

Oryx in Africa

My pup Hintza was in the back seat. I called to alert him to what was about to take place. As Ron gunned the truck, the oryx take off. Hintza had a happy moment watching them run, his head out the window. But the oryx don’t speed off into the horizon like the pronghorn I’m used to in Wyoming. They quickly get bored and resume standing and staring on the opposite side of the road.

We’re not in Africa where oryx are native to the Kalahari desert. This is the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico. Oryx, also known as Gemsbok, were brought here in the late 1960s. Frank Hibben, avid big game hunter, controversial archaeologist, professor at University of New Mexico, and chairman of the New Mexico Game and Fish Commission, had the bright idea of bringing oryx in for a big game hunting experience. To hunters, the barrenness of the Missile Range must have appeared as if they needed filling up. Researchers believed they’d simply stay within the Tularosa Basin, never growing beyond 500 to 600 animals. Mountain lions would control them, they said. But in Africa, prides of lions hunt them. Our solitary lions would rather take their chances on smaller, less formidable prey.

Ninety-three oryx were brought to the Missile Range between 1969 and 1973. Oryx barely need water, they eat anything with or without leaves, have no natural predators, and breed year round. Instead of self-limiting, the oryx thrived. The Land of Enchantment was now theirs for the overtaking. Six thousand today roam in southern New Mexico, and they need more and more room. Oryx inhabit not just the dry basins, but wander through mule deer and sheep habitat, stand on bajadas, invade washes, intrude on private lands, and comingle with bighorn sheep.

Looking from the Armendaris Ranch. Oryx inhabit these dry stretches of desert

Lindsay Smythe, San Andres Refuge Manager, tells me the Refuge allows depredation hunts from September through March. Hunters are escorted to the field, and told which one to shoot. Males have harems and the animals are difficult to sex.

Smythe is also concerned about disease transfer. “I will tell you on our bighorn sheep survey, I saw a lot of oryx up in sheep country. I started to count them, but finally gave up. We’re going to burn up too much fuel (in the helicopter) counting oryx instead of bighorn. They don’t get up into the highest steepest areas, but they do definitely interact.”

She wonders if the scabies outbreak that brought the sheep almost to extinction in the 1990s might not have been transferred from oryx. The timeline certainly fits, with precipitous drops in the bighorn population around ten years after the oryx introduction. Even so, the Refuge still has issues with other diseases common to bighorns which oryx definitely do transmit. Plus the science is still learning about the entire disease complex in bighorn sheep transmissible from other ungulates.

Even with over 1000 hunt tags issued every year, the NMGF can’t keep the oryx in check.

Nearby, on the Turner Armendaris Ranch, biologists are concerned about over browsing due to oryx. The Ranch holds oryx hunts every year, with reduced rates in the Fra Cristobals, bighorn country. Turner has one of the largest bighorn herds in New Mexico. The browse pressure from oryx compounds other thorny problems like drought and climate change.

Over in Nevada, a similar problem exists but with a more recognizable species. I called Mike Cox of Nevada Department of Wildlife to discuss bighorns there. Nevada once held the largest desert bighorn population in the West. The state’s classic basin-range topography was considered one huge metapopulation. When I began by asking about his biggest concern, he said “if you love wildlife in Nevada, the biggest problem that should be on the top of your to-do list is feral horses. We have more biomass of wild feral horses than the combined wild ungulate populations in the state of Nevada.”  I asked Cox where those horses were concentrated. Were they in bighorn country?

Historical range of bighorns in NV 1860, 1960, 2019

“They’re everywhere. They’re in the Mohave Desert, they’re in the Great Basin Desert, they’re in the sub-alpine, they’re in the alpine.”

“How many horses do you have?”

“About 60,000. Way too many cows, way too many horses. Our ecosystem is being destroyed as we speak. (Nevada) is going to be unable to move into the future if you overlay climate change.”

Even when I asked him about Nevada’s policies on mountain lion controls for bighorns, his response was telling.

“We shut a couple of bighorn herd hunts down, not because of disease, but because of lion predation and (Cox’s emphasis) feral horses.”

When I thought he was speaking solely of habitat destruction, he corrected me.

“They drink all the water. A bighorn will never go back to a water source that has a horse, ever. It’s their behavior. Because of that they get hugely impacted and die of thirst because the horses guard the water source for four months of the year.”

Cox segued into mountain lions and water sources. “When they have to go to a water source, mountain lions have such a great learned behavior and very efficient, so they can take their toll on the population. Mountain lions are not the reason that bighorns are in trouble, just the tip of the spear. There are a lot of things that contribute to bighorns not doing well.”

The overpopulation and mismanagement of wild horses and open range livestock is an enormously controversial topic. This essay isn’t about tackling or outlaying solutions for proper management, but to shine a light on how large, free-ranging, non-native ungulates imperil our ecosystems and our native wildlife across the West.

How to Age a Bighorn Sheep

Badlands, Wild horses, and natural gas wells

Yesterday was the Greater Yellowstone Coalition (GYC) Cody Chapter annual spring hike.   This year they decided to go to McCullough Peaks, outside of Cody.  McCullough Peaks is badlands east of Cody.  It’s also a wild horse preserve and parts of it are Wilderness Study area.

McCullough Peaks, named after Pete McCollough who drove cattle to the southfork in 1879 for Judge Carter’s cattle company, is a stark and beautiful landscape.  The earth tones vary from reds to purples to shades of tan.  Numerous and dangerous sinkholes line the broken trails.  Its a land that one might look at and say “Nothin’s here”.  But I’ve hiked it twice now in the last three weeks and I beg to differ.Badlands, McCullough Peaks

My first hike several weeks ago the land was just beginning to green up.  Now’s the time the desert is fertile and blooming, lasting about a month.  You have to time your hike a few days after a snow or rain, otherwise the mud is a murky maze, hard to avoid.  One of the GYC members said this land is part of the Crocodilian age, rich in fossils from the Eocene, 38 to 58 million years ago when seas covered and then receded from the basin.

Hiking close to the herd, W__ and I kept our 50′ distance, but the wild horses decided to check us out more closely.  A mare and her foal came over, sniffed us, and decided we were fine to be on their land.  Its amazing these horses can even survive.  With rainfall only 5 to 8 inches a year, they seem to find food.  The BLM maintains some stock reservoirs that the horses use, as well as the open range cattle.Wild Horses

Wild Horse

The GYC hike was to Peak 6224.  Although it’s only about a mile distance, I found the trek difficult going up and down barren, steep, slippery soil.  From the summit of Peak 6224, you could see the entire basin–Carter Mountain, Heart Mountain, north to Beartooth Plateau and Powell, east to the Pryors and the Big Horns.  The greens of the new grass highlighted the hues of reds and purples, with the snowy peaks as a backdrop.  It was beautiful.  Purples of desert soil

Sinkhole, some are large enough for a man to fall through

View from the peak looking east

GYC chose this hike because on the other side of the road from the hike is where the proposed Natural Gas development is.   At the end of the hike we continued on the road over the hill to view the site.  One well has already been drilled and the toxic waste holding pond is full.  The 6 acre pad is built, but because of low gas prices right now, the well is waiting to be functional.

Open smelly pit with toxic hydrocarbon and chemical waste

This pit is supposed to be protected from birds as well as mammals

Gas pad still not reseeded and recontoured

6 acre pad should have been reseeded and recontoured

Hillary Eisen of the GYC staff explained that this is the first of many proposed wells in the area.  This well was an exploratory drill and they seem to have found enough gas to justify continuing.  She also explained that the 6 acre pad is allowed for the trucks to get in and create the well, but they’re supposed to have re-contoured and seeded the area by now, which they hadn’t.  Also she said that they don’t need to have an open pit for the toxic water waste; that it could just as easily be in a container.  The pit is supposed to be covered so birds can’t get in.  The pit had a real toxic smell.  In addition, there was garbage everywhere when we drove up.  They’re supposed to clean up the mess they leave.

This is the well, capped for now because prices are low.

This is the well, capped for now because prices are low.

This well is on state land.  Several of the others are on BLM land.  The state leases parcels of land with little environmental impact necessary.  They justify their leasing on the basis of the land paying for schools.  The BLM as a federal agency requires input from citizens and reviews.  But, Hillary explained, almost 100% of the time they approve development requests.

Once the wells are drilled and operating (when natural gas prices go back up), either pipelines need to be built or trucks will be going in and out to transport the gas.  Traffic will increase, more holding ponds with more toxic waste will be built, and a large generator for the pumping will be operating 24/7.  The noise from this generator will be constant and deafening.  McCullough Peaks will be a very different place, more on the order of a mini-Jonas field.  The solitude that makes parts of these lands eligible for a Wilderness area will be no longer.Beauty and solitude of McCullough Peaks Wilderness Study Area

Natural gas may be, as Hilliary explained, our transition fuel to greener technology.  It has a lower greenhouse gas impact than oil does.  But that doesn’t mean we can’t drill in more conscious ways.  This site, with the garbage strewn along the road and the plot, the negligence in restoring the area, the open unnecessary and smelly pits, as well as the types of generators that will be involved with the noise levels in the future–all that is done in the name of low costs.  I would call it pure neglect and unconsciousness.

“Don’t let people push you and say you have to provide energy for the nation.  It is not unreasonable to say there is a point at which we don’t want this to become an oil and gas Appalachia.”–Gov. Dave Freudenthal